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Child Health USA 2013 An illustrated collection of current and historical data, published annually.

Maternal and Infant Vaccination

Narrative

Vaccination is one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century, resulting in dramatic declines in mortality and morbidity for many infectious diseases.1 An annual influenza (flu) vaccination is now recommended for all persons aged 6 months and older; however, it is especially important for certain groups, including pregnant women and older adults, who are at higher risk for flu complications.2 By mid-April of 2013, only 50.5 percent of pregnant women reported receiving flu vaccine for the 2012-2013 season. Those with insurance, either private/military or public insurance, were more likely to have received the flu vaccine (53.0 and 50.0 percent, respectively), compared to only 33.7 percent of pregnant women without insurance. Pregnant women are also specifically recommended to receive a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine (Tdap), regardless of whether they have been previously vaccinated, to prevent potentially fatal infection in the newborn.3

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a series of vaccinations from birth through 24 months of age, many of which require multiple doses for effectiveness as well as boosters to sustain immunity.4 In 2012, 68.4 percent of children 19–35 months of age received each of seven vaccines in a series of recommended vaccines (4:3:1:3:3*:1:4). This series includes four doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP/DT/DTP); three doses of poliovirus vaccine; one dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); three or four doses of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, depending on brand type; three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine (HepB); one dose of the varicella (chicken pox) vaccine; and four doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Children living in households below the poverty level were less likely to have completed the recommended vaccination series than those living at or above the poverty level (63.4 percent versus 71.6 percent). Hepatitis A and Rotavirus vaccinations are also recommended for children under age 2.

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Control of infectious diseases. MMWR. 1999 Jul 30;48(29):621-9.

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines and Preventable Diseases. Accessed: 09/02/13

3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women – Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012. MMWR. 2013;62(07):131-5.

4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization Schedules. Accessed: 08/02/13.

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Graphs

This image is described in the Data section.

influenza vaccinations graph

This image is described in the Data section.

recommended vaccinations graph

Data

Influenza Vaccination Coverage* Among Pregnant Women, by Insurance Type, 2013**

Percent of Women:

  • Private/Military 53.0
  • Public 50.0
  • Uninsured 33.7
  • Total 50.5

*Having received the influenza vaccination since July 1, 2012.

**Women pregnant at any time from October, 2012 to January, 2013 were surveyed in April, 2013.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women - United States, 2012-13 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Sep 27;62(38):787-92.

Recommended Vaccination Series Coverage* Among Children Aged 19-35 Months, by Poverty Status,** 2012

Percent of Children:

  • Less Than 100% of Poverty 63.4
  • 100% of Poverty or More 71.6
  • Total 68.4

*Receipt of 4+ DTaP, 3+ Polio, 1+ MMR, 3+ or 4+ Hib depending on brand type, 3+ HepB, 1+ Varicella, 4+ PCV.

**Poverty level, defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, was $23,681 for a family of four in 2012.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Sep 13;62(36):733-40.