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Child Health USA 2013 An illustrated collection of current and historical data, published annually.

SIDS/SUID

Narrative

In 2010, there were a total of 3,610 or 0.9 sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID) per 1,000 live births, accounting for 15 percent of all infant deaths. SUID includes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related infant deaths due to unknown cause and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed.1 These causes of death have been grouped due to evidence that some deaths previously classified as SIDS are now being assigned to other sleep-related causes of death.2 For example, SIDS rates declined from 1998 to 2001 while death rates due to other unknown causes and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed were rising. Altogether, SUID generally declined from 1990 to 1998 and has remained relatively stable since then without significant multi-year changes.

SUID rates vary greatly by race and ethnicity. In 2009, SUID rates were highest for infants born to American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic Black mothers (2.14 and 1.92 per 1,000, respectively); these rates were more than twice the rate among infants born to non-Hispanic Whites (0.94 per 1,000). The SUID disparity explained 38 percent of the total infant mortality gap between American Indian/Alaska Natives and non-Hispanic Whites and 14 percent of the excess non-Hispanic Black infant mortality compared with non-Hispanic Whites (data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site). SUID rates were generally lowest for infants born to Hispanic mothers (0.53 per 1,000), except for Puerto Ricans (1.15 per 1,000), and those born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers (0.37 per 1,000). However, SUID rates have been shown to be higher among infants born to Native Hawaiian mothers.3 Racial/ethnic differences in safe sleep practices may contribute to SUID disparities (Read more about Safe Sleeping Behaviors).

In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics released expanded recommendations to promote safe sleep environments and other protective factors that can reduce the risk of sleep-related infant deaths.4 These form the basis of the new Safe to Sleep campaign (formerly Back to Sleep),5 and go beyond the back sleep position, including recommendations such as use of a firm sleep surface without soft bedding, room-sharing without bed-sharing, breastfeeding, and avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke and other drugs.

1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020 Topics & Objectives: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Accessed: 07/31/2013.

2 American Academy of Pediatrics. Technical Report—SIDS and other sleep-related deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleep environment. Pediatrics. 2011 November; 128(5): e1341-67.

3 United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Linked Birth/Infant Death Records 1999-2002 on CDC WONDER. Accessed at lbd-v2002.html on Jul 29, 2013 11:27:28 PM

4 American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy Statement—SIDS and other sleep-related deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleep environment. Pediatrics. 2011 November; 128(5): 1030-1039.

5 National Institutes of Health. Safe Sleep for all Babies. October 2011. Accessed: 07/11/13.

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Graphs

This image is described in the Data section.

SUID Mortality by Cause of Death graph

This image is described in the Data section.

SUID Mortality by Maternal Race graph

Data

Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID) Mortality Rates, by Listed Cause of Death, 1990-2010
Year SUID
(International Classification Disease (ICD) Code: 798.0/R95) per 1,000 Live Births
Unknown Cause
(ICD Code: 799.9/R99) per 1,000 Live Births
Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed
(ICD Code: E913.0/W75) per 1,000 Live Births
Total SUID per 1,000 Live Births
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File 1979-1998. CDC WONDER Online Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File CMF 1968-1988, Series 20, No. 2A, 2000 and CMF 1989-1998, Series 20, No. 2E, 2003. Accessed: 07/28/13. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2010 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2012. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2010, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed: 07/28/13.
1990 1.30 0.03 0.21 1.55
1991 1.30 0.04 0.19 1.53
1992 1.20 0.03 0.20 1.43
1993 1.17 0.04 0.22 1.42
1994 1.03 0.04 0.19 1.26
1995 0.87 0.04 0.22 1.13
1996 0.78 0.04 0.19 1.01
1997 0.77 0.04 0.18 0.99
1998 0.72 0.05 0.18 0.94
1999 0.67 0.06 0.21 0.94
2000 0.62 0.07 0.26 0.94
2001 0.55 0.10 0.29 0.95
2002 0.57 0.11 0.27 0.95
2003 0.53 0.10 0.27 0.90
2004 0.55 0.12 0.25 0.92
2005 0.54 0.12 0.31 0.97
2006 0.54 0.14 0.25 0.93
2007 0.57 0.15 0.25 0.97
2008 0.55 0.17 0.26 0.99
2009 0.54 0.16 0.27 0.97
2010 0.52 0.16 0.23 0.90

Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID)* Mortality Rates, by Maternal Race/Ethnicity, 2009

Per 1,000 Live Births:

  • Non-Hispanic White 0.94
  • Non-Hispanic Black 1.92
  • American Indian/Alaska Native (Includes Hispanics) 2.14
  • Asian/Pacific Islander (Includes Hispanics) 0.37
  • Hispanic 0.53
  • Mexican 0.46
  • Puerto Rican 1.15
  • Cuban (Fewer than 20 deaths; data did not meet the standard of reliability or precision.)
  • Central and South American 0.33

*SUID includes Sudden Infant Deaths Syndrome (International Classification Disease (ICD) Code: R95), Unknown Cause (ICD Code: R99), and Accidental Suffocation or Strangulation in Bed (ICD Code: W75).

Source: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Linked Birth/Infant Death Records 2007-2009 on CDC WONDER On-line Database. Retrieved from: lbd-current.html; Accessed: 07/28/13.