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Child Health USA 2013 An illustrated collection of current and historical data, published annually.

Intimate Partner Violence and Pregnancy

Narrative

In 2009-2010, 3.9 percent of women with a recent live birth in a 30-state area reported that they had been pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked or physically hurt in some other way by an intimate partner in the 12 months prior to becoming pregnant, and 3.2 percent reported experiencing this type of abuse during their most recent pregnancy. Intimate partner violence (IPV), including physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, before and during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight.1

The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy among women with a recent live birth varied by maternal characteristics. Teen mothers were more likely than older mothers to have experienced physical abuse by an intimate partner during their pregnancy. Nearly 7 percent of teen mothers reported IPV during pregnancy, compared to 5.0 percent of mothers aged 20-24 years, 2.7 percent of those aged 25-29 years, and less than 2 percent of those 30 and older (data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site). Rates of IPV during pregnancy were similar for mothers with 12 years of education or less (approximately 4.5 percent) while less than 1.0 percent of women with 16 or more years of education experienced such abuse. Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic Black women were most likely to experience IPV during pregnancy (6.5 and 5.8 percent, respectively) while non-Hispanic Asian mothers were least likely (1.5 percent; data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site).

IPV in the year prior to pregnancy was also more common among younger mothers and mothers with less education. In 2009-2010, more than 7 percent of teen mothers reported experiencing physical abuse in the year prior to their pregnancy, compared to less than 2 percent of mothers aged 35 years and older. Similarly while approximately 5.6 percent of mothers with 12 years of education or less reported past-year abuse, the same was true for 1.0 percent of women with 16 years of education or more (data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site). Experience of past-year abuse remained highest among non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic Black women (7.6 and 6.1 percent, respectively), compared to 3.1 percent of non-Hispanic White mothers and 4.8 percent of Hispanic mothers (data not shown in graph images or in data tables on this site).

1 Sharps PW, Laughon K, Giangrande SK. Intimate partner violence and the childbearing year: maternal and infant health consequences. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2007 Apr;8(2):105-16.

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Graphs

This image is described in the Data section.

Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy graph

This image is described in the Data section.

Intimate Partner Violence Before Pregnancy graph

Data

Intimate Partner Violence* During Pregnancy, by Maternal Education, 2009-2010**

Percent of Mothers:

  • Less Than 12 Years 4.5
  • 12 Years 4.6
  • 13-15 Years 3.4
  • 16 Years or More 0.9
  • Total 3.2

*Defined as having been pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked or physically hurt in some other way by an intimate partner.

**Includes data from a total of 30 states and New York City; 25 states contributed both years. Mothers completed surveys between 2 and 9 months postpartum.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2009-2010. Analysis conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Intimate Partner Violence* During 12 Months Prior to Pregnancy, by Maternal Age, 2009-2010**

Percent of Mothers:

  • 19 Years or Younger 7.1
  • 20-24 Years 6.5
  • 25-29 Years 3.2
  • 30-34 Years 2.2
  • 35 Years or Older 1.8
  • Total 3.9

*Defined as having been pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked or physically hurt in some other way by an intimate partner.

**Includes data from a total of 30 states and New York City; 25 states contributed both years. Mothers completed surveys between 2 and 9 months postpartum.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2009-2010. Analysis conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.