School Problems and Repeating a Grade
CSHCN are more likely than other children to have problems in school that require a call home. Of school-aged CSHCN, more than half (51.4 percent) of CSHCN had no calls home, compared to nearly three-quarters (74.8 percent) of children without special health care needs. 20.5 percent of CSHCN had 4 or more such calls in the past year, compared to 4.8 percent of non-CSHCN. Of CSHCN with emotional, behavioral, or developmental conditions, more than one-third (34.7 percent) had four or more calls home, compared to 8.5 percent of CSHCN without these conditions. The percentage of CSHCN with 4 or more calls home ranged across states from 13.7 percent to 33.1 percent.
When children consistently have problems in school and are not engaged in their schoolwork, they may be required to repeat a grade. Repeating a grade is also more likely among CSHCN: 18.5 percent of school-aged CSHCN have repeated at least one grade since starting kindergarten, compared to 8.2 percent of non-CSHCN. CSHCN are more likely than non-CSHCN to have repeated a grade, even after statistical adjustment for other differences between CSHCN and non-CSHCN.
Among non-CSHCN, repeating a grade has decreased since 2003, when 9.6 percent had repeated a grade; however, rates did not change significantly for CSHCN. On the state level, the proportion of CSHCN who have repeated a grade ranged from 2.5 percent to 39.9 percent.
Among CSHCN, a greater proportion of boys have repeated a grade than girls (22.1 percent versus 13.4 percent), and children in low-income households are much more likely than higher-income children to have repeated a grade. Nearly one-third (32.3 percent) of CSHCN with household incomes below the Federal poverty level (FPL) have repeated a grade, compared to 8.9 percent of CSHCN with household incomes of 400 percent or more of the FPL. Among CSHCN with emotional, behavioral, or developmental conditions, 27.7 percent have repeated a grade, compared to10.5 percent of CSHCN without these conditions.