New York Discretionary Awards

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC00134
Project Start Date: July 01, 2001
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: Northern Manhattan Perinatal Partnership, Inc.
Address: W 127th St New York NY 10027
Project Director: Delores S Passmore
Phone Number: (212) 665-2600 Extn-324
Email: delores.passmore@nmppcares.org

Project Description

New York City (NYC) is a vibrant, ever-changing metropolis with a total population of 8.6 million people. Manhattan, has a total population of close to 1.63 million people.NMPP serves the Central Harlem (115,723), East Harlem (120,511), Washington Heights and Inwood (190,020) communities of Manhattan (US Census 2010). The families in the communities we seek to impact are disproportionately affected by disparities within the social determinants of health (ex: food insecurity, housing insecurity, access to quality healthcare, education and literacy, trauma and toxic stress). All of these make them especially vulnerable to poor health outcomes. The communities served by NMPP are home to a large African American, Hispanic, and African-born population. These populations experience lower social economic status, health inequity, and disparities across the spectrum of factors influencing well-being (i.e. housing, health, education, and economics) compared to the Non-Hispanic White population.

Project Title: Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disorders Training Program

Grant Number: T73MC00029
Project Start Date: July 01, 1994
Project End Date: June 30, 2021
Organization: UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER
Address: Hylan Building Rochester NY 14627
Project Director: Stephen B Sulkes
Phone Number: (585) 275-2986
Email: steve_sulkes@urmc.rochester.edu

Project Description

Children and youth with neurodevelopmental disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorders and other special health care needs (ASD/NDD) in western New York State lack adequate access to effective services and supports that are family centered, culturally competent, community-based, cost-effective, and coordinated. Individuals with ASD/NDD in urban and rural settings are especially underserved. Gaps in health care services to transition-age youth with special health care needs are also significant.

Project Title: Thalassemia

Grant Number: U1AMC28551
Project Start Date: June 01, 2015
Project End Date: May 31, 2021
Organization: WEILL MEDICAL COLLEGE OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Address: York Ave # 89 New York NY 10065
Project Director: Sujit S Sheth
Phone Number: (212) 746-3439
Email: shethsu@med.cornell.edu

Project Description

The proposed demonstration project aims to markedly expand the resources and services provided by the New York Comprehensive Thalassemia Center (NYCTC), a well-established program that has cared for individuals with thalassemia for over 30 years through a well-established comprehensive care model delivering the most efficient transfusion, chelation and ancillary therapies.

Project Title: Maternal and Child Health Public Health Training Program

Grant Number: T76MC28439
Project Start Date: June 01, 2015
Project End Date: May 31, 2020
Organization: RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, THE
Address: Washington Ave Albany NY 12222
Project Director: Christine T Bozlak
Phone Number: (518) 402-0299
Email: cbozlak@albany.edu

Project Description

With a rapidly evolving United States health care and public health system, mass retirements in the maternal and child health (MCH) workforce, and persistent disparities in key MCH population health outcomes, there is a growing need for a well-trained and diverse MCH workforce.

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC27812
Project Start Date: September 01, 2014
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER OF RICHMOND, INC.
Address: Port Richmond Ave Staten Island NY 10302
Project Director: HENRY THOMPSON
Phone Number: (718) 876-2599
Email: chcrichmond@gmail.com

Project Description

Reduce the high infant mortality rate in the target population on the North Shore of Staten Island through aggressive enrollment of women in health insurance and primary and/or prenatal care. Objective 1: Improve and Enhance Women's Health. Objective 2: Provide quality services for women of child-bearing age. Objective 3: Strengthen Family Resilience.

Project Title: Hemophilia Treatment Centers (SPRANS)

Grant Number: H30MC24048
Project Start Date: June 01, 2012
Project End Date: May 31, 2022
Organization: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Address: Gustave L Levy Pl New York NY 10029
Project Director: Christopher Walsh
Phone Number: (212) 241-3443
Email: christopher-e.walsh@msnyuhealth.org

Project Description

To improve the comprehensive care delivery model at NE regional HTCs and improve long-term clinical outcomes for bleeding disorder patients.

Project Title: EMSC Partnership Grants

Grant Number: H33MC06724
Project Start Date: March 01, 2006
Project End Date: March 31, 2022
Organization: Health Research, Inc./NYS Dept of Heatlh
Address: Corning Tower Rensselaer NY
Project Director: Ryan Greenberg
Phone Number: (518) 402-0996
Email: Ryan.Greenberg@health.ny.gov

Project Description

With federal EMS for Children State Partnership funding ($130,000), New York’s EMS system works to reduce the prevalence of pediatric morbidity and mortality that may occur as a result of acute illness and severe injury. To accomplish this mission, the EMSC Program works to institutionalize pediatric-centered healthcare programs and promotes the value and importance of integration. Integrating the pediatric population's emergency healthcare needs and resources will improve the process, access, and delivery of the emergency medical services system to respond, provided intervention, and transport to the most appropriate healthcare facility, and the pediatric-readiness of health institutions to medically manage and adequately treat children in emergency situations.

Project Title: Maternal and Child Health Field-Initiated Research Program

Grant Number: R40MC32879
Project Start Date: July 01, 2019
Project End Date: August 31, 2020
Organization: Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York
Address: 630 W 168th St # 49 New York NY 10032
Project Director: Alexander Friedman
Phone Number: (212) 305-3410
Email: amf2104@cumc.columbia.edu

Project Description

The objective of this proposal is to determine whether hospital level factors such as community-based services and outreach, hospital staffing, and availability of medical specialists such as critical care units are associated with reduced risk for severe obstetric morbidity discrepancies. We hypothesize that factors such as high nurse-to-patient staffing ratios, availability of community/health services, and availability of consultative services will be associated with decreased risk-adjusted morbidity and decreased race-based morbidity disparities.

Project Title: Universal Newborn Hearing and Screening

Grant Number: H61MC00005
Project Start Date: April 01, 2000
Project End Date: March 31, 2020
Organization: Health Research, Inc. / NYS Dept of Health
Address: Broadway Menands NY 12204
Project Director: Constance Donohue
Phone Number: (518) 473-7016
Email: constance.donohue@health.ny.gov

Project Description

New York State (NYS) has the third highest number of annual live births in the country (230,271 for 2017). There are 123 maternity hospitals and birthing centers approved and regulated by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), 280 audiology practices that have been identified as serving young children, and 60 local early intervention programs with qualified audiology personnel. The Bureau of Early Intervention’s (BEI) New York Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (NYEHDI) Program staff will engage stakeholders across the entire system of care to ensure that the state achieves the 1-3-6 goals of screening by one month of age, diagnosis by three months of age, and early intervention by six months of age.

Project Title: Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Grant Program

Grant Number: X10MC33598
Project Start Date: September 30, 2019
Project End Date: September 29, 2021
Organization: HEALTH, NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF
Address: EMPIRE STATE PLAZA ROOM 2701 CORNING TOWER ALBANY NY 12237
Project Director: Michael Acosta
Phone Number: (518) 474-1911
Email: michael.acosta@health.ny.gov

Project Description

The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program supports the delivery of coordinated and comprehensive high-quality and voluntary early childhood home visiting services to eligible families living in at-risk communities. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), which administers this program in partnership with the Administration for Children and Families, funds states, territories, and tribal entities to develop and implement evidence-based programs that best meet the needs of their communities.

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC30741
Project Start Date: November 03, 2016
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, INC.
Address: E 210th St Bronx NY 10467
Project Director: Alvin Strelnick
Phone Number: (718) 430-8625
Email: hstrelni@montefiore.org

Project Description

The IMR in our target population, African American women residing in Bronx Community Districts (CDs) 4, 5, 7 & 11, exceeded the Healthy Start threshold, so our Partnership sought to reduce the local IMR by 25% over 5 years by establishing the Healthy Start model. Located in the nation's poorest urban county, our local IMR for African Americans exceeded those of whites and Latinos in these four community districts and of the Bronx- and city-wide IMRs. This population had high rates of late or no prenatal care, lack of a medical home and regular well woman health care, and high rates of obesity and unplanned pregnancies. The Partnership contract with two FQHC networks, but one withdrew after the first two years of the award, leaving all direct services through a single FQHC network and with another non-profit organization leading the Bronx CAN.

Project Title: Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

Grant Number: H17MC32707
Project Start Date: March 01, 2019
Project End Date: February 29, 2024
Organization: Maimonides Medical Center
Address: 48th Street BROOKLYN NY 11219
Project Director: Yonit Lax
Phone Number: (718) 283-3661
Email: ylax@maimonidesmed.org

Project Description

The Building Resilience in Children Families, Infants and Toddlers (BRIC FIT) program is an evidence-informed, family-centered, and community-partnered approach to enhance parenting skills, improve parental mental health and child development, and strengthen resilience in families with identified ACEs and SDH risk factors within the primary care setting. It will expand the population served by our current integrated mental health service model to include families of children ages 0-5 seen in a large pediatric primary clinic. Families referred to the BRIC FIT program will have received their care in the pediatric primary care clinic where the program will be housed. During the first five years of life a child typically has 15 well child visits. During these visits, families enrolled in BRIC FIT will have the early childhood mental health specialist conduct visits jointly with our pediatricians. Modeled after the Healthy Steps program.

Project Title: CISS -Local/State

Grant Number: H25MC12970
Project Start Date: June 01, 2009
Project End Date: July 31, 2021
Organization: New York State Office of Children and Family Services
Address: Washington St Rensselaer NY 12144
Project Director: Elana Marton
Phone Number: (518) 473-4857
Email: elana.marton@ccf.ny.gov

Project Description

Inadequate screenings of children and their mothers are compounded by health inequities and a uncoordinated early childhood system. Three in ten children receive screens and even less receive services when a delay is assumed. As a result children in NYS do not have an equal start in life.

Project Title: Newborn Screening State Evaluation Program

Grant Number: E16MC33248
Project Start Date: September 01, 2019
Project End Date: August 31, 2021
Organization: HEALTH RESEARCH, INC.
Address: 150 Broadway Ste 560 Menands NY 12204
Project Director: Michele Caggana
Phone Number: (518) 473-3854
Email: michele.caggana@health.ny.gov

Project Description

The purpose of this program is to evaluate the effectiveness of newborn screening programs in reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by heritable disorders in newborns and children by assessing the timeliness of screening, follow up, and referral to counseling or health care services. The program will support state newborn screening programs in the implementation of a demonstration program to use newborn screening quality indicator information to evaluate the effectiveness of their state newborn screening system.

Project Title: Networks for Oral Health Integration within the Maternal and Child Health Safety Net

Grant Number: UK7MC33231
Project Start Date: September 01, 2019
Project End Date: August 31, 2024
Organization: HEALTH CENTER NETWORK OF NEW YORK, INC.
Address: 165 Main St Ossining NY 10562
Project Director: Michelle N Tropper
Phone Number: (845) 341-3974
Email: mtropper@healthefficient.org

Project Description

Oral health care (such as age 1 oral screenings, topical fluoride, and anticipatory guidance) is not routinely accessed by all infants and toddlers. Access gaps by socioeconomic characteristics of children <3 years are often the result of missed opportunities in the clinical setting. As a result, nearly one in four US children 2-5 years experience dental caries on primary teeth, and dental caries is prevalent among children living with limited family resources. Community health centers (CHCs) are the safety net providers for underserved communities. CHCs play a critical role in primary oral health interventions and reducing disparities in oral health access and outcomes., Even in CHCs with co-located dental and primary care clinics, oral health services are operated in relative isolation. Additionally, not many CHCs are equipped with a sufficient dental workforce to effectively address dental needs of infants and toddlers, including social determinants affecting their oral health.

Project Title: Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

Grant Number: H17MC29435
Project Start Date: March 01, 2016
Project End Date: February 28, 2021
Organization: MONTEFIORE MEDICAL CENTER
Address: E 210th St Bronx NY 10467
Project Director: Jessica Rieder
Phone Number: (718) 920-2897
Email: jrieder@montefiore.org

Project Description

Obesity continues to be the most prevalent nutritional disorder of children and adolescents in the United States. Rates of overweight and obesity have been steadily climbing in the United States as well as in other developed and developing countries. While the obesity epidemic affects both genders and occurs in all age, race and ethnic groups in the United States, prevalence rates are among the highest in low income Hispanic and African-American youth. Engagement and retention in multidisciplinary weight management programs needed for long-term weight loss outcomes is challenging for these youth who face many financial, familial, and social barriers. In spite of the overwhelming need to address the epidemic of obesity and increasingly severe obesity in adolescents, existing clinical and community services are ill-equipped to accommodate the complex and intensive needs with which these low income, predominantly minority young people live.

Project Title: Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disorders Training Program

Grant Number: T73MC29073
Project Start Date: August 01, 2015
Project End Date: June 30, 2021
Organization: WESTCHESTER INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Address: CEDARWOOD HALL VALHALLA NY 10595
Project Director: Jenean Castillo
Phone Number: (914) 493-7471
Email: jcastillo@wihd.org

Project Description

There is an urgent need to increase the number and diversity of leaders and professionals with knowledge and skills to work with, and on behalf of, children with and at risk for NDD, including ASD, and their families, to provide: 1) leadership in systems of care, policy and advocacy, research, and training to ensure that the best evidence is applied to result in optimal outcomes for children with NDD, including ASD, and their families; 2) evidence-based diagnosis/rule-out and treatment for children with or at risk for NDD, including ASD; and 3) culturally and linguistically competent services and supports to diverse populations.

Project Title: Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

Grant Number: H17MC28294
Project Start Date: March 01, 2015
Project End Date: February 29, 2020
Organization: MAIMONIDES MEDICAL CENTER INC
Address: 10th Ave Brooklyn NY 11219
Project Director: Suzette Brown
Phone Number: (919) 491-3448
Email: suzettenbrown@gmail.com

Project Description

The purpose of this program is to support innovative, community-based initiatives to improve the health status of infants, children, adolescents, and families in rural and other underserved communities by increasing their access to preventive care and services. This program supports the Health Resources and Services Administration’s (HRSA) goals to improve access to quality health services, achieve health equity, and enhance population health. Recipients will implement community-based programs and evidence-based models of care that build on existing community resources and evaluate to demonstrate program impact.

Project Title: Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disorders Training Program

Grant Number: T73MC33228
Project Start Date: July 03, 2016
Project End Date: June 30, 2021
Organization: Albert Einstein College Of Medicine
Address: 1300 Morris Park Ave Bronx NY 10461
Project Director: Lisa Shulman
Phone Number: (718) 430-3901
Email: lshulman@montefiore.org

Project Description

Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (NARDs) affect more than 10% of children in the United States. There is a need for qualified professional personnel and leaders to assure the provision of the wide range of needed professionals to meet the health care needs across the life span of individuals with IDD.

Project Title: Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Training Program

Grant Number: T77MC33158
Project Start Date: July 01, 2018
Project End Date: June 30, 2023
Organization: Albert Einstein College Of Medicine
Address: 1300 Morris Park Ave Bronx NY 10461
Project Director: Elisa Muniz
Phone Number: (718) 430-3914
Email: elmuniz@montefiore.org

Project Description

The target population will be comprised of individuals from the greater metropolitan NYC region comprised including New York City and Long island with a total population of 11,108,567 individuals including 3,562,333 foreign-born individuals speaking more than 120 languages, 2,718,192 children and youth age 19 or younger, and an estimated 48,927 children and youth with ADSs and an estimated 375,111 children and youth with DDs. The primary service location in the Bronx has a majority population of individuals from URGs with 53.5% Latino, 30.2 % Black non-Hispanic and 11% white non-Hispanic, and contains immigrants from around the world. While these needs represent a significant public health challenge, they also depict the future demographics of the United States. As a result, investments in workforce preparation in New York City offer a unique opportunity to train the next generation of leaders for children and youth with ASDs and DDs.

Project Title: Family Professional Partnership/CSHCN

Grant Number: H84MC08006
Project Start Date: June 01, 2007
Project End Date: May 31, 2022
Organization: Parent to Parent of NYS
Address: Tupper Lake NY 12986
Project Director: Michele Juda
Phone Number: (518) 381-4350 Extn-27
Email: mjuda@ptopnys.org

Project Description

Families of CYSHCN are faced with the daunting task of navigating complex service systems in order to access care and achieve improved health outcomes for their children. Successful outcomes depend on being able to access insurance, advocate within the healthcare delivery system, identify community-based services, understand various service models, achieve collaborative relationships with professional partners, access coordinated care and plan for transition to adult healthcare and services. Families benefit from having access to a family-run and staffed F2FHIC, and due to the size and diversity of NYS, it is especially helpful for the F2FHIC to be able to provide regionally-specific resources and support.

Project Title: Regional Genetics Networks

Grant Number: UH7MC30773
Project Start Date: June 01, 2017
Project End Date: May 31, 2020
Organization: HEALTH RESEARCH, INC.
Address: Broadway Menands NY 12204
Project Director: Michele Caggana
Phone Number: (518) 473-3854
Email: michele.caggana@health.ny.gov

Project Description

A regional needs assessment identified gaps in access to genetic services, especially impacted underserved populations. The barriers to care include financial and geographic limitations. There is also a lack of understanding about the purpose for genetic services and the overall role in improving health amongst some patients and providers.

Project Title: Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)

Grant Number: U03MC00007
Project Start Date: September 30, 2001
Project End Date: August 31, 2023
Organization: TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Address: W 168th St New York NY 10032
Project Director: Peter Dayan
Phone Number: (212) 342-4176
Email: psd6@columbia.edu

Project Description

There is a need for rigorous, large-scale pediatric emergency medicine research to address high impact, low incidence pediatric illness as well as identifying best practices for treating illness and injury in children. An invested, collaborative, network of research institutions and pre-hospital agencies addressing these shared goals is needed to decrease morbidity and mortality and increase quality of life associated with childhood illness and injury.

Project Title: Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

Grant Number: H17MC30733
Project Start Date: March 01, 2017
Project End Date: February 28, 2022
Organization: NEW YORK AND PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL, THE
Address: W 168th St New York NY 10032
Project Director: Dodi Meyer
Phone Number: (212) 305-6227
Email: ddm11@columbia.edu

Project Description

The CHALK Jr. program aims to reduce childhood obesity by affecting policies, systems and the environment in early childhood centers.

Project Title: MCHB State Systems Development Initiative

Grant Number: H18MC00036
Project Start Date: October 01, 1993
Project End Date: November 30, 2022
Organization: HEALTH RESEARCH, INC
Address: Broadway Menands NY 12204
Project Director: Marilyn A Kacica
Phone Number: (518) 473-9883
Email: Marilyn.Kacica@health.ny.gov

Project Description

The NYSDOH's mission is to protect, improve and promote the health, productivity and well-being of all New Yorkers. The NYSDOH Title V program is led by the Division of Family Health (DFH) Director and Medical Director. The Title V program aims to provide leadership to improve health outcomes for women, children and families though assessment, policy development and public health interventions. The importance of the state DOH data capacity is readily recognized as critical to identifying needs of the MCH population and improving data integration and utilization for assessing trends in outcomes, including health disparities, for the MCH population. With the changing landscape of NYS' population, services and resources, coupled with health reform changes and efforts to improve outcomes while not increasing costs, there is an emphasis on quality data that is available to MCH decision makers, program administrators and staff who are monitoring and evaluating programs.

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC00067
Project Start Date: July 01, 2001
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: Onondaga County Health Department
Address: Montgomery St Syracuse NY 13202
Project Director: Nyasha Y Boldon
Phone Number: (315) 435-2920
Email: nyashaboldon@ongov.net

Project Description

This funding was sought because Black/African American infants in the City of Syracuse face an infant mortality rate (IMR) of 12.5 deaths per 1,000 live births during 2013-2015, which is more than double the rate seen among white residents during the same time period (6.2 deaths per 1,000 live births). To qualify for this funding, the project area must have an IMR that is 8.8 deaths per 1,000 live births, which is 1.5 times that national average. the IMR in Syracuse is far greater than 8.8 deaths per 1,000 live births.

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC27821
Project Start Date: September 01, 2014
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: PUBLIC HEALTH SOLUTIONS
Address: Worth St New York NY 10013
Project Director: Poulette Brewster
Phone Number: (718) 704-5079
Email: pbrewster@healthsolutions.org

Project Description

The Public Health Solutions(PHS) Queens Healthy Start Partnership (QHS) will serve high need women of childbearing age and their families in lower-income communities in Queens New York. These communities experience higher rates of infant mortality, teen pregnancy, low birth weight, women who receive late or no prenatal care, other pregnancy risk. This service area has a higher population of undocumented immigrants specifically from the Caribbean and Central and South America. The service area is a medically undeserved area and have significant unmet medical needs. There are significant social determinates of health which are exacerbated by the disparities and lack of access in the community. There is a need for coordination between the medical and social services in the area which will provide better and easier access to women and their families in this service area. Through the Queens Healthy Start Partnership we will provide care coordination needed for families.

Project Title: Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

Grant Number: H17MC32708
Project Start Date: March 01, 2019
Project End Date: February 29, 2024
Organization: NEW YORK AND PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL, THE
Address: 525 E. 68th Street, New York NY 10065
Project Director: Evelyn Berger-Jenkins
Phone Number: (212) 305-6227
Email: eb283@columbia.edu

Project Description

More than half of adult mental health conditions begin prior to fourteen years of age and affect individuals well into adulthood. Childhood mental illness disrupts the normal processes of social, emotional, and physical development for children, adversely affecting their performance in school and long-term academic attainment. Children in impoverished urban settings encounter demographic factors that increase their risk for mental health and behavioral problems, and quality treatments are often lacking in these communities.

Project Title: Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)

Grant Number: U03MC33154
Project Start Date: September 01, 2019
Project End Date: August 31, 2023
Organization: RESEARCH FOUNDATION FOR THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, THE
Address: 520 Lee Entrance Ste 211 Amherst NY 14228
Project Director: E. B Lerner
Phone Number: (716) 645-9726
Email: lerner@buffalo.edu

Project Description

Limited research exists to optimize medical care in the prehospital setting and prior research has primarily utilized adult populations. This has created large knowledge gaps in EMS for children, and many pediatric EMS interventions lack a scientific evidence base. This project will sustain and strengthen the capacity of CHaMP to conduct high-quality multi-site pediatric EMS research that closes priority knowledge gaps.

Project Title: Healthy Start Initiative-Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities

Grant Number: H49MC04479
Project Start Date: May 01, 2005
Project End Date: March 31, 2024
Organization: Fund for Public Health in New York, Inc.
Address: Broadway New York NY 10007
Project Director: Mary-Powel Thomas
Phone Number: (718) 637-5238
Email: mthomas7@health.nyc.gov

Project Description

Women in Central Brooklyn—especially African-American women—have higher rates of infant mortality, preterm birth, and low birthweight than U.S. women overall. Healthy Start Brooklyn provides case management, community-based education, and cross-sector action in an effort to reduce these disparities.

Date Last Reviewed:  November 2020