1. Home
  2. Programs & Impact
  3. Early Childhood Systems Programming
  4. Infant-Toddler Court Program

Infant-Toddler Court Program

Abuse and neglect during infancy and early childhood can disrupt brain and cognitive development, social and emotional development, and academic achievement. The youngest children are the most vulnerable to maltreatment and its consequences. Historically, over one quarter of all child maltreatment victims in the U.S. are younger than 3 years old, with children under 1 year old most affected1.

The Infant-Toddler Court Program (ITCP) works to change child welfare practices and improve the early developmental health and well-being of infants, toddlers, and their families through the use and spread of research-based infant-toddler court teams. The program focuses on assisting families with young children where maltreatment has occurred or is likely to occur due to stressful experiences, such as poverty or risky health conditions. Infant-toddler court teams unite courts, child welfare, health practitioners, and other family support providers and partner with families to help them access the resources that they need to maintain safe, stable, and healthy relationships that children need to thrive. The program also helps states and communities design services and systems that strengthen all families, treat them equitably, and put them at the center of decisions.

Currently, HRSA funds two connected investments. The ITCP National Resource Center leads and coordinates nationwide improvements to policy, practice, and evidence in child welfare and early childhood systems, and provides expertise for the infant-toddler court approach. Twelve state-level awards help build capacity for and expand use of the infant-toddler court approach.

State award recipients and the National Resource Center work together to advance common objectives:

  • Increase the spread, scale, and coordination of local infant-toddler court sites nationally
  • Improve policies and practices to better support the health and well-being of young children and their families who are or may become involved with the child welfare system and to prevent child maltreatment more broadly during the prenatal-to-3-year period
  • Increase timely access to supports and services for the priority population
  • Improve equity in outcomes across poverty, race/ethnicity, and rurality by using evidence-driven strategies and data

Current ITCP state award recipients (2022-2027)

HRSA currently awards approximately $7.5 million annually to state-level entities under ITCP (up to $625,000 each). Recipients provide leadership, coordination, and quality improvement for at least three local sites within their state, territory, or tribal nation.

Recipient City State
Prevent Child Abuse Arizona Prescott Valley AZ
Rocky Mountain Children's Law Center Denver CO
Georgia State University Research Foundation, Inc. Atlanta GA
Iowa Department of Public Health Des Moines IA
Michigan Department of Health & Human Services Lansing MI
Passaic County Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) Wayne NJ
Division of Child & Family Services Carson City NV
Justice Innovation Inc. New York NY
Educational Service Center of Cuyahoga County Independence OH
Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Oklahoma City OK
The Children's Center Utah Salt Lake City UT
Children and Youth Justice Center Seattle WA

Current ITCP National Resource Center (2022-2027)

HRSA currently awards approximately $5 million per year to ZERO TO THREE National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families to lead the ITCP National Resource Center, in partnership with Family Voices, the National Indian Child Welfare Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Society of Addiction Medicine, the Center for the Study of Social Policy, Help Me Grow National Center, the ABA Center on Children and the Law, and the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

1According to Child Maltreatment reports from the Administration for Children and Families’ Children’s Bureau.

Date Last Reviewed: