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Advancing Applied MCH Research

The Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.

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Project Number: R60 MC 05674-05
Grantee: American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologist
Department/Center: Department of Research
Project Date: 7/1/1990

Final Report


Principal Investigator

Jay Schulkin, Ph.D.
Director of Research
409 12th Street, S.W.
Washington, DC  20024-2188
Phone: (202) 863-2504 x 2550


  • Women/Maternal
  • Prenatal


Obstetrician-gynecologists are the principal healthcare providers for women during pregnancy and the perinatal period. In addition, an increasing number of obstetrician-gynecologists are changing their practices to take on a more primary care role. Approximately one-in-five office visits to obstetrician-gynecologists can be classed as primary care. This change requires an increasing awareness about diagnosis and management of a broad array of women's health issues which traditionally were the purview of primary care physicians and other specialists. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) produces a wide range of educational materials for its Fellows to address this additional required knowledge. The Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN) comprises the only existing national collective of practicing obstetrician-gynecologists who have been recruited to participate in survey studies. CARN membership is made up of over 1,100 Fellows of ACOG who practice in a variety of ambulatory care settings throughout the United States. One function of the CARN is to inform and evaluate the College's efforts to provide guidance on clinical practice to its Fellows by tracking obstetrician-gynecologists' knowledge and clinical practices on a wide range of clinical issues and comparing existing practices with that supported by evidence-based guidelines. The CARN provides a mechanism for collecting normative data that can be used to develop standards and guidelines to improve patient health, and allows researchers, educators and policy-makers to track longitudinal changes in medical practice patterns. CARN studies, using mailed questionnaire surveys, will continue as the foundation of the project. These surveys will specifically address such issues as: knowledge and use of diagnostic criteria, screening tools and treatments, practice patterns regarding patient education and referrals to other health professionals, and knowledge and attitudes concerning the importance of the disease/topic to their practice. Evidence-based documents from ACOG often will be used as the basis for the surveys.


Listed is descending order by year published.

Please visit the Grantee's Publication web site for a complete list of Publications. Exit Disclaimer

Leddy M, Haaga D, Gray J, Schulkin J. Postpartum mental health screening and diagnosis by obstetrician-gynecologists. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;32(1):27-34.

Anderson BL, Dang EP, Floyd, RL, Sokol R, Mahoney J, Schulkin J. Knowledge, opinions, and practice patterns of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding their patients' use of alcohol. J Addiction Med. 2010;4(2):114-21.

Anderson BL, Strunk A, Schulkin J. Study on defensive medicine practices among obstetricians and gynecologists who provide breast care. J Healthc Qual. 2010 Nov 11.

Cogswell ME, Power ML, Sharma AJ, Schulkin J. Prevention and management of obesity in nonpregnant women and adolescents: beliefs and practices of US obstetricians and gynecologists. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(9):1625-34.

Coleman-Cowger VH, Erickson K, Spong CY, Portnoy B, Croswell J, Schulkin J. Current practice of cesarean delivery on maternal request following 2006 state-of-the-science conference. J Reprod Med. 2010;55(1-2):25-30.

Dalton VK, Harris LH, Gold KJ, Kane-Low L, Schulkin J, Guire K, Fendrick AM. Provider knowledge, attitudes, and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(6):531.e1-8.

Einarsson JI, Matteson KA, Schulkin J, Chavan NR, Sangi-Haghpeykar H. Minimally invasive hysterectomies: a survey on attitudes and barriers among practicing gynecologists. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010 Mar-Apr;17(2):167-75.

Funk C, Anderson BL, Schulkin J, Weinstein L. Survey of obstetric and gynecologic hospitalists and laborists. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(2):177.e1-4.

Jones JL, Krueger A, Schulkin J, Schantz PM. Toxoplasmosis prevention and testing in pregnancy, survey of obstetrician-gynaecologists. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57(1):27-33.

Leddy MA, Gonik B, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and perinatal infections: a review of studies of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (2005-2009). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2010;2010:583950.

Matteson KA, Anderson BL, Pinto SB, Lopes V, Schulkin J, Clark MA.. Surveying ourselves: examining the use of a web-based approach for a physician survey. Eval Health Prof. 2010 Dec 29.

Menzin AW, Anderson BL, Williams SB, Schulkin J. Education and experience with breast health maintenance and breast cancer care: a survey of obstetricians and gynecologists. J Cancer Educ. 2010;25(1):87-91.

Morgan MA, Lawrence H 3rd, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' approach to well-woman care. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(3):715-22.

Rayburn WF, Anderson BL, Johnson JV, McReynolds MA, Schulkin J.Trends in the academic workforce of obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(1):141-6.

Silverman GK, Loewenstein GF, Anderson BL, Ubel PA, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Failure to discount for conflict of interest when evaluating medical literature: a randomized trial of physicians. J Med Ethics. 2010;36(5):265-70.

Verani JR, Montgomery SP, Schulkin J, Anderson B, Jones JL. Survey of obstetrician-gynecologists in the United States about Chagas disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83(4):891-5.

Anderson B, Stumpf PG, Schulkin J. Medical error reporting, patient safety, and the physician. J Patient Saf. 2009;5(3):176-9.

Anderson BL, Juliano LM, Schulkin J. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(9):1457-66.

Anderson BL, Silverman GK, Loewenstein GF, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Factors associated with physicians' reliance on pharmaceutical sales representatives. Acad Med. 2009;84(8):994-1002.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Carlson R, Hawks D, Schulkin J. Patient perceptions of obstetrician-gynecologists' practices related to HIV testing. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13(3):355-63.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Carlson R, Hawks D, Schulkin J. Patient perceptions of obstetrician-gynecologists' practices related to HIV testing. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13(3):355-63.

Driscoll DA, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Screening for Down syndrome: changing practice of obstetricians. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(4):459.e1-9.

Goldstein LS, Chapin JL, Lara-Torre E, Schulkin J. The care of adolescents by obstetrician-gynecologists: a first look. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22(2):121-8.

Henderson ZT, Power ML, Berghella V, Lackritz EM, Schulkin J. Attitudes and practices regarding use of progesterone to prevent preterm births. Am J Perinatol. 2009 Aug;26(7):529-36.

Leddy MA, Anderson BL, Gall S, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and the HPV vaccine: practice patterns, beliefs, and knowledge. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22(4):239-46.

Leddy MA, Gonik B, Gall SA, Anderson B, Schulkin J. Changes in immunization practices, knowledge and beliefs of Michigan obstetrician-gynecologists since 2000. Mich J Public Health. 2009;3(1):20-32.

Leddy MA, Jones C, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Eating disorders and obstetric-gynecologic care. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(9):1395-401.

Morgan MA, Crall J, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Oral health during pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22(9):733-739.

Power ML, Anderson BL, Schulkin J. Attitudes of obstetrician-gynecologists toward the evidence from the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials remain generally skeptical. Menopause. 2009;16(3):500-8.

Power ML, Cogswell ME, Schulkin J. US obstetrician-gynaecologist's prevention and management of obesity in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;29(5):373-7.

Power ML, Leddy MA, Anderson BL, Gall SA, Gonik B, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and perceived knowledge regarding immunization. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Sep;37(3):231-4.

Ross DS, Rasmussen SA, Cannon MJ, et al. Obstetrician/gynecologists' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of infections in pregnancy. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(8):1187-93.

Stumpf PG, Anderson BL, Lawrence H, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' opinions about patient safety: costs and liability remain problems; are mandated reports a solution? Womens Health Issues. 2009;19(1):8-13.

Anderson B, Schulkin J, Ross DS, Rasmussen SA, Jones JL, Cannon M.J; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Knowledge and practices of obstetricians and gynecologists regarding cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy--United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(3):65-8.

Anderson BL, Hale RW, Salsberg E, Schulkin J. Outlook for the future of the obstetrician-gynecologist workforce. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(1):88.e1-8.

Coleman VH, Carter MM, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' screening patterns for anxiety during pregnancy. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(2):114-23.

Coleman VH, Carter MM, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. United States obstetrician-gynecologists' accuracy in the simulation of diagnosing anxiety disorders and depression during pregnancy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;29(3):173-84.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices regarding preterm birth at the limit of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21(2):115-21.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices regarding preterm birth at the limit of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21(2):115-21.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' screening and management of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(1):35-41.

Power M, Baron J, Schulkin J. Factors associated with obstetrician-gynecologists' response to the women's health initiative trial of combined hormone therapy. Med Decis Making. 2008;28(3):411-8.

Van Beneden CA, Hicks LA, Riley LE, Schulkin J. Provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding obstetric and postsurgical gynecologic infections due to group A streptococcus and other infectious agents. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2007;2007:90189.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Cesarean delivery on maternal request. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(5):1209-12.

Cleary-Goldman J, Bettes B, Robinson JN, Norwitz E, D'Alton ME, Schulkin J. Postterm pregnancy: practice patterns of contemporary obstetricians and gynecologists. Am J Perinatol. 2006;23(1):15-20.

Cleary-Goldman J, Morgan MA, Malone FD, Robinson JN, D'Alton ME, Schulkin J. Screening for Down Syndrome: practice patterns and knowledge of obstetricians and gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(1):11-7.

Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and self-identified depression: personal and clinical. Depress Anxiety. 2006;23(2):83-9.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Clinical approach to mental health issues among obstetrician-gynecologists: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2006;61(1):51-8.

Morgan MA, Hankins GD, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy revisited: the current state of knowledge and the impact of american college of obstetricians and gynecologists task force report. J Perinatol. 2005 Aug;25(8):519-25.


Clinical Practice, Capacity & Personnel, Preconception Health, Prenatal Care, Pregnancy, Screening, Preterm, Mental Health & Wellbeing, Nutrition & Diet, Substance Use, Immunization

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